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Modern Build Systems: A Comparative Analysis of GNU Make, CMake, Ninja, and Meson

Guide on Build System

Build Systems are vital tools in software development that automate the process of compiling and converting source code (.c/.cpp) into executable (.exe) and binary (.bin) files. They play a crucial role in managing project dependencies, handling source code compilation, and ensuring the efficient and reliable creation of large and complex software projects.

The primary goal of a build system is to simplify the build process, making it easier for developers to compile their software while reducing errors, build time, and inconsistencies. Additionally, the build system ensures that it does not re-build any unchanged source files unless the old output files have been cleaned. Build systems achieve this through various stages, including dependency resolution, configuration, generation, compilation, linking, and post-processing.

Build System

Exploring Diverse Build Systems and Their Integral Roles:

In the present day, there has been an emergence of several modern build systems, including GNU Make, CMake, Ninja, and Meson.

  1. GNU  Make:

One of the most widely recognized build systems among developers is GNU Make. The GNU Make build system primarily revolves around a “Makefile,” which defines rules, flags, variables, dependencies, and instructions for the build process. A key feature of Makefile is its support for incremental builds based on file timestamps, and it is compatible with various platforms such as Windows, Linux, and MacOS. It is particularly renowned for its simple architecture and lower complexity, making it a favored choice among developers for smaller projects.

  • GNU Make Build Stages:

Build Stages in GNU Make: The GNU Make build system comprises a series of build stages that transform source code into an executable output file, providing a clear understanding of the entire build process and its final outcome. Below is the graphical representation of its build process:

GNU Make Build Stages

  1. CMake:

CMake stands as a potent yet user-friendly build system. Leveraging “CMakeLists.txt” files, it defines project settings, generates platform-specific build files, manages dependencies, supports modular project structures, and streamlines cross-platform development. CMake’s multi-platform compatibility spans Windows, Linux, and MacOS, akin to GNU Make. A key strength lies in its capability to produce build files for diverse systems (e.g., Make, Ninja), accommodating developers to work with their preferred tools. It is infamous for building complex and large projects.

  • CMake Build Stages:

Let’s understand the CMake build process and its different build stages.

CMake Build Stages

  1. Ninja:

In the contemporary development landscape, Ninja has garnered significant popularity among developers for its fast and lightweight features. It is designed to prioritize high speed and efficiency, with a primary focus on reducing build times through parallelism and the avoidance of unnecessary recompilation processes. Ninja utilizes the “” file with a simple syntax and generates build files that facilitate quick and reliable software development projects.

  • Ninja Build Stages:

Outlined below are the build stages, which illustrate how we can comprehend the transformation of source code into the executed output file.

Ninja Build Stages

  1. Meson:

Meson is a modern and developer-friendly build system designed for simplicity and efficiency. It focuses on providing a simple and easy-to-use syntax while offering advanced features for fast-building software projects. The primary objective of the Meson build system is to streamline the build process and enhance cross-platform compatibility by generating build files compatible with various build tools and IDEs.

  • Meson Build Stages:

Through a series of sequential build stages, the Meson build system transforms source code into an executable output file, providing a clear understanding of the entire process.

Meson Build Stages

Comparative Analysis of Top Build Systems:

Build System Language Ease of Use Platform Support Scalability Integration Performance Community Support
Make C/C++ Moderate Cross-platform Good Moderate Varies Large
Ninja C/C++ Easy Cross-platform Good Limited Excellent Moderate
CMake C/C++ Moderate Cross-platform Good Excellent Varies Large
Meson Multiple Easy Cross-platform Excellent Limited Good Moderate
  • Below comparison graph of the Build System vs Build Time is given for a simple “Test_example” build with a different build system. 
  • The configuration that we used to build a “Test_example”
    • System Type: 64-bit operating system, x64-based processor
    • RAM: 16 GB
    • Terminal: Cygwin
    • Operating system: windows 10 pro 
    • Operating system version: 22H2
    • No. of source files: 11
    • No. of header files: 11
    • Python script to measure time: 1
Build System Comparison From the graph above, it’s evident that Ninja is taking the least time to build an example. Additionally, Meson is a simple build system to build complex and large source files and integration support in CMake is good. Note:  The graph presented reflects our experimental results and could differ based on various system configurations and source files.

Key Consideration for Build System Selection:

  • Understanding Project Requirements: Ensure that the chosen build system aligns with your project’s language, platform, and dependencies.
  • Build Performance: Opt for a build system characterized by speed and efficiency. Look for features such as parallel execution and incremental builds.
  • Ease of Use: Prioritize a build system that is user-friendly and easily comprehensible. Additionally, verify the availability of complete documentation.
  • Cross-Platform Support: Confirm the build system’s compatibility across different platforms.
  • Dependency Management: Evaluate whether the system effectively handles external dependencies and provides package management support.
  • IDE Support: Assess the integration of the build system with your IDE and other essential development tools.
  • Community and Support: Select a build system with a strong and supportive community.
  • Long-Term Vision: Consider the system’s maintenance, release cycle, and support from reputable organizations when making your build system choice.

Selecting an appropriate build system is an essential task for developers when working on any project. Each build system has its own advantages and disadvantages. By understanding the roles and features of various build systems, evaluating project requirements, and taking into account factors such as performance, integration, and scalability, developers can make informed decisions to enhance their build processes. The proper choice of a build system can significantly enhance development productivity, reduce build times, and substantially contribute to the overall success of software projects.

VOLANSYS's Expertise in Modern Build Systems

VOLANSYS, as a trusted technology partner for numerous complex and large-scale embedded software development projects, showcases our expertise and proficiency in GNU Make, CMake, Ninja, and Meson. Our deep understanding of these contemporary build systems enables us to deliver tailored solutions and fulfil the distinctive requirements of various projects. By utilizing the power of automation, cross-platform development, and the rapid build capabilities of modern build systems, we ensure a seamless and efficient build process. Whether it involves optimizing dependencies, managing libraries, or expediting build times, VOLANSYS bring the true potential of GNU Make, CMake, Ninja, and Meson in software development and henceforth, developers can elevate their software development projects to new heights of efficiency and success.

To know more about our Embedded engineering services, feel free to contact us.

About the Author: Hitesh Mathukiya

Hitesh is a Senior Firmware Engineer at VOLANSYS, an ACL Digital Company. His major contribution lies in the Embedded Domain, including product development services on different IoT, Automotive applications, and home appliance-based products, using languages like C, C++, and Python. He has an in-depth knowledge of Linux, RTOS, and Bare Metal-based applications and driver development. With over 7 years of experience in embedded software, IOT, he brings valuable expertise to his role.

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